Legends of "Bronze horseman"
The legend says: "The horseman into a horse on the brink of a wild rock and pointed to a bottomless precipice, is the horseman of the Apocalypse, a horse pale, appeared after removal of the fourth press, the horseman, to which name is death; and the hell followed it; also the power over the fourth part of the earth is given it - to destroy a sword and hunger, and animals terrestrial".
The horseman of the Apocalypse
The monument has been opened on August, 7th, 1782. Occurrence the bronze horseman on the coast of Neva has stirred up again immemorial struggle of a century past with a century present.
The legend, most likely, was born among Old Believers. In the aversion of Peter I transformations they used fantastic visions of the Apocalypse which has received surprising acknowledgement.
"All coincided. And a horse sowing horror and a panic, with brought over heads of the people iron hoofs and the horseman, with real lines of AntiChrist, and a chasm - whether waters? The earths? - But a hell chasm there, where point its right hand. All coincided."
At the same time it is impossible to forget that the estimation of the person of Peter and its acts is inconsistent even in works of known historians and philosophers, especially it is not surprising that it is also inherent to Peter the Great folklore estimations.
Dream of major Baturin
In 1812 when Petersburg was threatened with danger of Napoleon intrusion, sovereign Alexander Pavlovich has disposed to deduce Peter the Great statue in the Vologda province for what to stats-secretary Molchanov some thousand roubles have been released.
At this time a major Baturin has achieved appointment to the personal friend reigning prince Golitsyn and has told to it that his, Baturin, is pursued by the same dream:
He sees himself on a Senatskaya Square. Peter's face turns. The horseman came from the rock and also goes by Petersburg streets to the Stone island, where Alexander I lived then.
The horseman drives to a courtyard of the Kamenoostrovsky palace towards a sovereign. "The young man to what you have finished my Russia, - speaks to it Peter the Great, - but while I on the Place, my city has nothing to be afraid!" Then the horseman turns back, and "heavy-sonorous sounds " distributed again.
Amazed with Baturin's story, prince Golitsyn transfers a dream to a tzar. Then Alexander cancels the decision, and Peter's statue remains on a place.
A Falkone's schoolgirl, Mari Ann Kallo, has moulded of the Peter's head during only one night while the sculptor struggled it some years and, having despaired after numerous attempts, has refused to make it.
By that time mademoiselle Kallo was already known in Petersburg by talented sculptural portraits that stored in the Hermitage till now. Even long before creation of a head of Peter she became a member of the Russian Academy of arts.
But she has become into the history only as a co-author of Falkone in creation of a great monument. Hardly probable that professor Falkone, starting to work over a statue, could assume that once will reach a blank despair from consciousness of own powerlessness at modelling of a head of Peter.
Three times he moulded this surprising head, three times, as it seemed to him, was close to success, three times the empress rejected his models, remaining unsatisfied with absence of similarity to the original.
And while the situation threatened to become drama, Ann Kallo, the old schoolgirl of the sculptor who arrived with him to Russia and has become by his constant assistant, has suggested to mould this head independently.
Working over a head of the horseman, Kollo used the plaster mask which has been made during Peter lifetime by sculptor Rastrelli. The success was full.
The model shown to Ekaterina has caused enthusiastic approval. The lifelong pension has been appointed to the sculptor.
Having received in 1788 on the occasion of opening of a monument of Peter the Great gold and silver medals, Falcone has given one of them - silver to Mari Ann.
In the common people the huge granite monolith, split by a lightning was called a thunder-stone. In twelve miles from Petersburg, near Horse Lahta, in the wood, acquired by a moss and a lichen, with trees growing through crevices, since ancient times laid a huge stone.
The primary idea of Falkone - to uplift an equestrian statue on a pedestal in the form of stone mountain - did not assume for this purpose of a uniform stone. It was possible to dream of it only.
Firstly Falcone has developed the sketch of the rock made of separate stone blocks. In 1767 on searches of stones special expedition has been equipped. However search has not given any results: or stones were small, or they were in such places, whence their delivery appeared impossible.
Only in a year by means of Simeon Vishnjakov, the old supplier of a building stone for needs of Petersburg, the granite block, during immemorial times split by a lightning and consequently called in the people by the Thunder-stone has been found out.
The two-year epopee of processing and delivery of a huge rock to Petersburg has begun.
For this purpose it was necessary to release it from the earth, having convinced thus that the stone is limited in size, i.e. is not a component of any immense monolith.
Then workers have punched a wide glade to the Gulf on which by means of a gimmick with bronze spheres in the wooden trenches and difficult system of blocks a stone was delivered to a coast.
Here it have been overloaded to specially constructed vessel and, under steadfast attention of all city, in September, 1770 safely delivered to a Senatskaya Square.
On the occasion of happy-end of this operation a special medal have beaten out on which face sheet was rapped out two words which have contained of a talent and diligence, an invention and an ingenuity, ability and experience of hundreds people: "Derznoveniju podobno".
Source: N.A. Sindalovsky "Legends of St. Petersburg"